Male infertility is related to dysfunctions in different organs and tissues, which can not always be identified with certainty. Some of these are permanent, but others are manageable with lifestyle changes. The main causes are pre-testicular, testicular and post-testicular.
Pre-testicular causes are related to hormones that regulate testicular functions. The most common causes are the functioning of the pituitary gland, a fundamental endocrine gland for spermatogenesis. In some cases the gland does not produce enough FSH, the hormone that regulates the production of spermatozoa. By placing the testicles in optimum conditions, fertility should also be restored.
Testicular causes are the most common and concern the very structure of the testes. In the case of cryptorchidism, the testicles remain within the abdomen, reversible condition. Those suffering from varicocele, however, have veins of the testicle too dilated. This condition increases the body temperature, killing the sperm, and damaging the production itself. Finally, there are orchitis, that is, testicular inflammation that can damage the mechanisms of spermatogenesis.
Post-testicular causes touch the sperm passage outside of the gonads. In these cases infertility is caused by the failure of sperm output, which remain blocked. Obstruction can be caused by congenital malformations or with time. In some cases the cause is an inflammation or an alternate response of the immune system, which attacks spermatozoa.