Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare cancer affecting the lymphatic system. It affects mainly young people between 20 and 30 years and the elderly over 70 years. It has an incidence of 5% of the total cases of cancer diagnosed and affects mainly men.
Those most at risk are those with a family history of illness, but environmental factors also play a role. Those infected with infectious mononucleosis, for example, are more at risk than the average. The same applies to those who suffer from autoimmune diseases and those who are following therapies with anti-rejection drugs.
There are two macro categories of cancer: Hodgkin's lymphoma predominantly nodular lymphocytic, 5% of cases; classic Hodgkin's lymphoma, 95% of cases. The classic variant presents sub-types in turn:
Nodular sclerosis: mainly affects young adults and includes 60% of cases;
Lymphocytic predominance: it includes only 5-10% of cases;
Mixed cellularity: affects older people and includes 15-30% of cases;
A lymphocyte depletion: it is the least common with only 1% of cases and typical of the elderly.
Because it affects the lymphatic system, Hodgkin's lymphoma may appear in several organs, although it often originates in the upper body. In fact, the swollen lymph nodes in the cervical region are the most frequent. The enlargement itself can be linked to a large number of causes, so by itself it is not very indicative. Buy more weight if accompanied by constant fever, night sweats, weight loss, widespread itching.
In the presence of symptoms, the physician's task is to analyze the clinical history of the subject and the family. The analysis of the symptoms follows and, if necessary, further in-depth examinations. Among these there is also the biopsy of the lymph nodes, to identify any cancer cells. In the event that the outcome is positive, we will continue with radiographs and resonances to verify the extent of the tumor.
Treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma depends largely on the type of disease and the age of the patient. It is largely controlled by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In case of relapse, stem cell transplantation may be necessary.