The tumors of the parathyroid gland affect the endocrine glands that are located near the thyroid gland, usually on the neck. There are benign and malignant versions; in the first case to speak of adenoma, in the second of parathyroid carcinoma. It is a very serious and very rare disease, which leads to death for dependent complications of blood and bones.
The parathyroid carcinoma affects mainly men and women between 45 and 50, but can appear at any age. The main symptom is a hypersecretion of PTH, parathyroid hormone that controls calcium levels in the blood. It presents with a palpable lesion on the neck and causes bone disease in 76% of cases and in 26% of renal dysfunction. The most severe cases are, however, those without the hypersecretion, as more difficult to diagnose. In these cases, the diagnosis is often delayed and it becomes difficult to intervene.
The parathyroid cancer symptoms are mostly related to excess calcium in the blood. This leads to the weakening of the bones, leading to pain and abnormal fractures. It also causes the accumulation of calcium in the kidneys, leading to development of thirst and frequent urination, and kidney stones. Given the involvement of the thyroid gland, symptoms include fatigue and weakness. If you experience these symptoms, you should do a background check. But it is good to remember that the causes of excess calcium in the blood are not all of which connect to the tumor.
The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is often difficult. The PTH hypersecretion is the most important clue, but it is not always present. In suspected cases, doctors also prescribe serum calcium levels, ultrasound scan of the neck and parathyroid glands.
If detected in time, a possible approach is the correction of hypercalcemia and surgery. In many cases, however, the operation is also done in the case of a suspected gland, without confirming that it is a tumor. Once you eliminated the tumor, chemotherapy and radiation are not very effective for preventing relapses. The only way forward is the repeated recourse to surgery, at least for now.